Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the peripubertal development of spinal curvature of a minimum of 10°. AIS is thought to be
attributable to genetic factors, nutrition, early exposure to toxins, and hormonal dysregulation. Recent literature suggests these factors may compound to determine both disease onset and severity. Currently, treatment is limited to observation, bracing, and surgical
intervention. Intervention is presently determined by severity and risk of curve progression. As they emerge, new therapies may target
specific etiologies of AIS.

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common
type of scoliosis affecting 2%–4% of adolescents, mainly
involving children between 10 and 18 years of age [1]. AIS
has both congenital and developmental components, with
the former being studied from the perspective of genetic
variation. Using comparative genetic methodologies, such
as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), several
genomic linkages have been shown to be associated with
this spine pathology. Thus, it can be determined that AIS
is polygenic or a quantitative trait locus, which can vary
due to several different genetic loci. The etiology is not
limited to genetic predispositions but has been studied in
association with physiological, anatomical, and hormonal
disruptions. The literature has been reviewed to provide a
holistic understanding of AIS etiology.