It is my understanding that fusion of vertebrae cannot be seen on X-rays but that thickening/solidifying between vertebrae can be seen which MAY BE fusion, but that fusion itself can not be definitively diagnosed or decided. Fusion can be decided/diagnosed at a surgery to stress the joining of the vertebrae or in the negative sense, when someone w/ spinal surgery has sudden pain and the X-ray shows non-junction.
Dxed 8/2011: Degenerative Adult-Onset Scoliosis age 65
XRAY 1/2012: 25* T levoscoliosis/ 36* L dexroscoliosis w/ 4.1 cm coronal & 3.5 cm sagittal balance
XRAY: 12/2012: Scoliosis curve same, Coronal Balance increased to 11.2 cm. T kyphosis 90 degrees
Severe disc degeneration thoracic & lumbar, stenosis esp L4
Surgery: T3 to S1 Fusion w/ ALIF L4-S1/XLIF L2-4, PSF T4-S1 in 2 surgeries,
19 & 22 March 2013, Dr. Serena Hu @ UCSF
Postop incisional hernia @ ALIF incision, repaired 3/2014