View Full Version : Scoliosis reversed with Tamoxifen in animal model

04-19-2009, 01:00 PM
2008 - CALMODULIN ANTAGONISTS DECREASE THE RATE OF PROGRESSION OF SCOLIOSIS: A PINEALECTOMIZED CHICKEN MODEL (http://www.spinecongress2008.org/sozlu_sunum_detay.php?ozet_no=1214052438&no=1&lang=tr)

Calmodulin probably has a regulatory role in muscle contraction and its’ antagonism may decrease the magnitude as well as the progression of scoliosis. Tamoxifen and trifluoperazine are known calmodulin antagonists. This study aimed to analyze whether the natural course of idiopathic like scoliosis in pinealectomized chicken may be altered by the administration of calmodulin antagonists and it was seen that progression of curves can be significantly decreased and even reversed by the administration of tamoxifene (TMX).

Tamoxifen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamoxifen) is a breast cancer drug from the 1970s. It has been used for many things including increasing the height of short boys (http://children.webmd.com/news/20051213/tamoxifen-may-boost-short-boys-height).

The study from 2008 is one more piece of strong evidence that implicates Calmodulin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calmodulin) as the cause of Scoliotic curves.

Two recent animal studies found the same thing.

March 2009 - The Effect of Calmodulin Antagonists on Experimental Scoliosis: A Pinealectomized Chicken Model (http://journals.lww.com/spinejournal/Abstract/2009/03150/The_Effect_of_Calmodulin_Antagonists_on.2.aspx)

April 2009 - The effect of calmodulin antagonists on scoliosis: bipedal C57BL/6 mice model (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19242737)

In children it's known that increasing levels of Calmodulin relate closely to curve progression (http://www.spineuniverse.com/displayarticle.php/article378.html).

Here is an excellent study from 1994 on that phenomenon.

Levels of platelets calmodulin for the prediction of progression and severity of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (http://www.ejbjs.org/cgi/reprint/76/8/1186.pdf)

If high levels of Calmodulin trigger curve progression what can reduce these levels?

When the spine is out of alignment it produces too much calmodulin. Bracing or surgery can help solve this problem.

April 2002 - Platelet calmodulin levels in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: do the levels correlate with curve progression and severity? (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11923672)

Calmodulin levels usually decreased in patients undergoing brace treatment (14/17) or spine fusion (9/10).

The fact that a straight back reduces Calmodulin appears to explain why in brace correction and compliance (http://www.scoliosisjournal.com/content/1/1/11) are the most important predictors of bracing success. It should be noted that small curves are more responsive to bracing than large curves perhaps because in brace correction is much better.

Initial in brace correction, or primary correction, together with compliance, have been shown to be the most important factors predicting success of treatment

Another factor that may reduce Calmodulin is Melatonin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melatonin). A recent Japanese study found that Melatonin supplements stopped progression in curves under 35 degrees. It is believed that this has to do with Calmodulin.

April 2009 - Serum melatonin levels in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prediction and prevention for curve progression – a prospective study (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19317797)

Melatonin binds to calmodulin with high affinity, thus acting as its antagonist. The inverse relationship between calmodulin and melatonin may prove important in considering the pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis.

For more on the Japanese study and how to increase Melatonin levels naturally visit this thread (http://www.scoliosis.org/forum/showthread.php?t=8637).